Elements of EFgo™
EFgo™ features seven (7) levels of increasing difficulty, each with its own sorting rules and complexity. EFgo™ will recommend a starting level for each child determined by thechild’s age in months.
There are ten (10) trials within each level. Children advance to the harder, higher levels if they meet the passing threshold of at least 80% (8 of 10) trials. Children continue to advance levels until they no longer meet the passing threshold (ceiling). If children do not meet the passing threshold on their starting level, EFgo™ will adapt and take them down to easier, lower levels until they are able to meet the passing threshold.
EFgo™ asks children to use their Executive Function skills to sort cards by placing them in an appropriate box depending on what sorting rule is to be used. For example, sorting according to a rule uses working memory, while changing rules requires children to inhibit using the previous rule and use the new sorting rule, and finally, a child will use cognitive flexibility to alternate between two rules in the same set of test trials.
The cards consist of various shapes of different colors and sizes. The colors have been chosen in order to be discriminable for most forms of color blindness. All items were chosen based on research showing which words for colors and objects children typically learn first. Because all items are labeled by the game during demonstration trials, children can learn the label if it is new to them before test trials begin.
EFgo™ Examiners will be able to follow along with the structure of each level by looking in the bottom right corner of the screen (e.g., Level 4 Demonstration, Level 4 Rule Check, Level 4 Part A, etc.). The general structure for each of the levels of EFgo™ is as follows:
Explanation > Demonstration > Rule Check > Test Trials (Parts A and B)
The Explanation stage is where the EFgo™ Examiner or the audio version of the assessment explains the rules the child will need to follow during the level (e.g., “In the duck game, all the ducks go in the duck box…”).
During Demonstrations, the Examiner, or the animated game, shows the child how to not only follow the rule at that given level but also how to drag-and-drop the cards.
Rule Checks allow the child to demonstrate their understanding of the level rules. Feedback for correct and incorrect responses is permitted during rule checks ONLY. A child will be given the opportunity to attempt each rule check two (2) times. If they respond incorrectly to the rule check both times, the game will note those results in reports, but the student will still be able to attempt the level. Rule Check responses are not calculated into scores.
Test Trials are those that are sorted by the child and then scored (scores combine accuracy + response time). Feedback is no longer permitted once a child moves into test trials.
In Part A, we assess a child’s ability to follow a single rule when there is another option as a distractor.
In Part B, we then ask children to switch to a different rule. There is little similarity between the two images.
In Part A, children are asked to put cards in boxes labeled with matching pictures.
In Part B, we switch rules by putting the cards in the opposite boxes.
In Level 3, the cards have a black silhouette of a shape against a colored background. Previous studies have indicated that separating the shape from the color on the image makes the task easier for children than if the color and shape are part of the same image. The test images only match the images on the boxes on the dimension of the shape or color.
In Part A, children are first asked to play the shape game, where they match the cards based on shape.
In Part B, children are asked to switch to the color game, where they must ignore the shape and instead focus on the color of the background on the card.
Note: Although it does not matter if the shape or the color game is administered first, we chose to follow this pattern for consistency.
In Level 4, the images on the boxes have a shape and color integrated into the same image. The test images only match the images on the boxes on the dimension of shape OR color (never both). This makes it more difficult for children to ignore one dimension (e.g., shape) and focus on the other (e.g., color).
In Part A, children are first asked to play the color game, where they match the cards based on color.
In Part B, children are asked to switch to the shape game, where they must ignore the color of the image and instead focus on the shape.
Note: Again, it does not matter if the color or the shape game is administered first, but we chose to follow this pattern for consistency.
In Level 5, we play with the same cards and boxes as we did in Level 4. Children are told that they will either play the shape game or play the color game. When the object card is flipped, the game or Examiner will say either, “Play the shape game,” or “Play the color game.” Children must be able to switch flexibly between games. Because we are playing both the shape and color game together, there are no labeled parts A and B in Level 5.
Levels 6 and 7
Again, in Levels 6 and 7, we play with the same cards and boxes as we did in Levels 4 and 5, however, some of the cards now have borders around them. Children are told that the border means that they should play the color game, whereas images without borders indicate that they should play the shape game (or vice versa in Level 7).