Category: Resources for Researchers

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How Executive Function Develops from Infancy into Adolescence

This video (link below) from the Harvard Center on the Developing Child explains how executive function develops from infancy into adolescence, and even adulthood. Experts in the field, including Reflection Sciences’ Co-founder, Dr. Phil Zelazo, talk about Executive Function skills, including working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive or mental flexibility. These skills allow for focusing,…

parent with children after executive function testing
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Father Influence on Cognition + Executive Function

Father influence on cognition + executive function is the topic researcher Alyssa Meuwissen, Ph.D., has explored over recent years. In both research and popular culture, moms have often been depicted as the “default” parent.  However, demographic trends show that dads are becoming more involved in the care of young children. There is great variety in…

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Civic Science to Improve Child Outcomes

Mind in the Making author Ellen Galinsky, the Bezos Family Foundation, and leading researchers on Executive Function (including our Co-founders!) make the case for citizens and scientists to work together to address our most challenging and science needs to improve child outcomes in the latest issue of Child Development. Contact us to request the article.

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Case Study – MEFS Predicts K Outcomes

The Minnesota Executive Function Scale (MEFS) is a brief, tablet-based comprehensive measure of executive function skills that is nationally normed down to 2 years of age. Reflection Sciences introduced the MEFS assessment to a consortium of independent schools to be used during the admissions process. Here’s what they found: Applicants who enrolled scored 10 points higher…

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What Is Social Development in Early Childhood?

Social development in early childhood is an important part of a person’s overall health, well-being, and happiness throughout his or her life. Social development is very closely linked to cognitive and emotional development, and together these developmental markers and milestones build the foundation for developing relationships with other people, coping with stressful situations, and many…

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Pretend Play in Child Development

According to pretend play in child development expert, Distinguished McKnight University Professor at the University of Minnesota, and Reflection Sciences Co-founder, Dr. Stephanie M. Carlson, “Play is about as ‘blueprinted’ a behavior as you can have in terms of basic survival and reproduction.” Play, which by definition has no immediate purpose other than recreation, is…

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Marshmallow Test

Many people are familiar with the late 60s, early 70s study called the “Marshmallow Test” by American psychologist Dr. Walter Mischel. Mischel and his research team put a marshmallow in front of a child and told them that they had two options: they could eat the marshmallow now, or they could wait for a said amount…

children taking early learning readiness tests
Resources for Researchers

Development of Consciousness in Childhood

The development of consciousness in childhood in relation to Executive Function (EF) skills is one that psychologists are just beginning to understand. Dr. Phil Zelazo is Reflection Sciences’ co-founder and the Nancy M. and John E. Lindahl Professor at the Institute of Child Development at the University of Minnesota. In this online lecture featured by…

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Interview Dr. Philip David Zelazo

In this interview Dr. Philip David Zelazo, Co-founder of Reflection Sciences and leading researcher in the field of developmental psychology, answers important questions from Ellen Galinsky, Executive Director and Chief Science Officer of Mind in the Making at the Bezos Family Foundation, Co-founder and President of Families and Work Institute (FWI), and Vroom Advisor. The interview was…

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Pretend Play – How To Get Kids to Focus Using Superheroes

For young children, pretend play is so much more important than just having fun. In a recent study by Dr. Stephanie M. Carlson, University of Minnesota Professor and Reflection Sciences CEO and Co-founder, and U of MN alums Dr. Rachel White, Dr. Emily Prager, and Catherine Schaefer, children who pretend to be their strong-minded hero…